Lecture -12: Common Base Amplifier

Common Base Amplifier:

The common base amplifier circuit is shown in Fig. 1. The VEE source forward biases the emitter diode and VCC source reverse biased collector diode. The ac source vin is connected to emitter through a coupling capacitor so that it blocks dc. This ac voltage produces small fluctuation in currents and voltages. The load resistance RL is also connected to collector through coupling capacitor so the fluctuation in collector base voltage will be observed across RL.

The dc equivalent circuit is obtained by reducing all ac sources to zero and opening all capacitors. The dc collector current is same as IE and VCB is given by

VCB = VCC - IC RC.

Fig. 1

These current and voltage fix the Q point. The ac equivalent circuit is obtained by reducing all dc sources to zero and shorting all coupling capacitors. r'e represents the ac resistance of the diode as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

Fig. 3, shows the diode curve relating IE and VBE. In the absence of ac signal, the transistor operates at Q point (point of intersection of load line and input characteristic). When the ac signal is applied, the emitter current and voltage also change. If the signal is small, the operating point swings sinusoidally about Q point (A to B).

Fig .3

If the ac signal is small, the points A and B are close to Q, and arc A B can be approximated by a straight line and diode appears to be a resistance given by

If the input signal is small, input voltage and current will be sinusoidal but if the input voltage is large then current will no longer be sinusoidal because of the non linearity of diode curve. The emitter current is elongated on the positive half cycle and compressed on negative half cycle. Therefore the output will also be distorted.

r'e is the ratio of ΔVBE and Δ IE and its value depends upon the location of Q. Higher up the Q point small will be the value of r' e because the same change in VBE produces large change in IE. The slope of the curve at Q determines the value of r'e. From calculation it can be proved that.

r'e = 25mV / IE

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